fMRI and connectomics.
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In an influential popular-scientific book, Sebastian Seung (MIT) wrote you are your connectome. Even if we do not fully embrace such a mechanistic view, it is clear that the set of physical connections within the brain establishes substantial boundary conditions to brain functioning, being ultimately its anatomical substrate. An interdisciplinary approach is clearly needed to understand the brain function. In this context, functional and microstructural MRI are very useful to non-invasively investigate the network properties of brain activity, and the relevant modulations associated, $e.g.$ to plasticity or neurodegeneration. Topological approaches are expanding as a powerful tool to identify the relevant features.